Square Matrix Multiplication in Java

The challenge

Write a function that accepts two square (NxN) matrices (two dimensional arrays), and returns the product of the two. Only square matrices will be given.

How to multiply two square matrices: 

We are given two matrices, A and B, of size 2×2 (note: tests are not limited to 2×2). Matrix C, the solution, will be equal to the product of A and B. To fill in cell [0][0] of matrix C, you need to compute: A[0][0] * B[0][0] + A[0][1] * B[1][0].

More general: To fill in cell [n][m] of matrix C, you need to first multiply the elements in the nth row of matrix A by the elements in the mth column of matrix B, then take the sum of all those products. This will give you the value for cell [m][n] in matrix C. 

Example

A B C |1 2| x |3 2| = | 5 4| |3 2| |1 1| |11 8|

Detailed calculation:

C[0][0] = A[0][0] * B[0][0] + A[0][1] * B[1][0] = 1*3 + 2*1 = 5 C[0][1] = A[0][0] * B[0][1] + A[0][1] * B[1][1] = 1*2 + 2*1 = 4 C[1][0] = A[1][0] * B[0][0] + A[1][1] * B[1][0] = 3*3 + 2*1 = 11 C[1][1] = A[1][0] * B[0][1] + A[1][1] * B[1][1] = 3*2 + 2*1 = 8

Link to Wikipedia explaining matrix multiplication (look at the square matrix example): http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Matrix_multiplication

A more visual explanation of matrix multiplication: http://matrixmultiplication.xyz

The solution in Java code

Option 1:

public class Solution { public static int[][] matrixMultiplication(int[][] a, int[][] b) { int[][] resultMatrix = new int[a.length][b[0].length]; for (int i = 0; i < a.length; i++) { for (int j = 0; j < b[0].length; j++) { for (int k = 0; k < b.length; k++) { resultMatrix[i][j] += a[i][k] * b[k][j]; } } } return resultMatrix; } }
Code language: Java (java)

Option 2:

public class Solution { public static int[][] matrixMultiplication(int[][] a, int[][] b) { int n = a.length; int[][] res = new int[n][n]; for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) { for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) { for (int k = 0; k < n; k++) { res[i][j] += a[i][k] * b[k][j]; } } } return res; } }
Code language: Java (java)

Option 3:

public class Solution { public static int[][] matrixMultiplication(int[][] a, int[][] b) { int n = a.length; int[][] c = new int[n][n]; for (int i = 0; i < n; i++) { for (int j = 0; j < n; j++) { for (int f = 0; f < n; f++) { c[i][j] += a[i][f] * b[f][j]; } } } return c; } }
Code language: Java (java)

Test cases to validate our solution

import java.util.Random; import java.util.function.IntSupplier; import org.junit.Assert; import org.junit.Test; public class SolutionTest { @Test public void exampleTest() { int[][] a = { {1,2}, {3, 2}}; int[][] b = { {3,2}, {1, 1}}; int[][] expected = { {5, 4}, {11, 8}}; int[][] actual = Solution.matrixMultiplication(a, b); Assert.assertArrayEquals(expected, actual); } @Test public void basicTest() { { int[][] a = { { 9, 7 }, { 0, 1 }}; int[][] b = { { 1, 1 }, { 4, 12 }}; int[][] expected = { { 37, 93 }, { 4, 12 }}; int[][] actual = Solution.matrixMultiplication(a, b); Assert.assertArrayEquals(expected, actual); } { int[][] a = { { 1, 2, 3 }, { 3, 2, 1 }, { 2, 1, 3 }}; int[][] b = { { 4, 5, 6 }, { 6, 5, 4 }, { 4, 6, 5 }}; int[][] expected = { { 28, 33, 29 }, { 28, 31, 31 }, { 26, 33, 31 }}; int[][] actual = Solution.matrixMultiplication(a, b); Assert.assertArrayEquals(expected, actual); } } }
Code language: Java (java)
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