The challenge

Define a function that takes one integer argument and returns a logical value true or false depending on if the integer is a prime.

Per Wikipedia, a prime number (or a prime) is a natural number greater than 1 that has no positive divisors other than 1 and itself.

Requirements:

  • You can assume you will be given an integer input.
  • You can not assume that the integer will be only positive. You may be given negative numbers as well (or ``).
  • NOTE on performance: There are no fancy optimizations required, but still the most trivial solutions might time out. Numbers go up to 2^31 (or similar, depends on language version). Looping all the way up to n, or n/2, will be too slow.

Examples:

is_prime(1)  /* false */
is_prime(2)  /* true  */
is_prime(-1) /* false */

The solution in Java code

Option 1:

public class Prime {
  public static boolean isPrime(int num) {
    return num > 1 && java.math.BigInteger.valueOf(num).isProbablePrime(20);
  }
}

Option 2:

public class Prime {
  public static boolean isPrime(int number) {
    if(number < 2)
      return false;
    for (int i=2; i<=Math.sqrt(number); i++){
      if(number % i == 0)
        return false;
    }
    return true;
  }
}

Option 3:

public class Prime {
  public static boolean isPrime(int num) {
    if (num == 2) return true;
    if (num < 2 || num % 2 == 0) return false;
    for (int i = 3; num >= i*i; i+=2) {
        if (num % i == 0) return false;
    }
    return true;
  }
}

Test cases to validate our solution

import static org.junit.Assert.assertTrue;
import static org.junit.Assert.assertFalse;
import org.junit.Test;

public class PrimeTest {
	@Test
	public void testBasic() {
		assertFalse("0  is not prime", Prime.isPrime(0));
		assertFalse("1  is not prime", Prime.isPrime(1));
		assertTrue ("2  is prime",     Prime.isPrime(2));
		assertTrue ("73 is prime",     Prime.isPrime(73));
		assertFalse("75 is not prime", Prime.isPrime(75));
		assertFalse("-1 is not prime", Prime.isPrime(-1));
	}
	@Test
	public void testPrime() {
		assertTrue("3 is prime", Prime.isPrime(3));
		assertTrue("5 is prime", Prime.isPrime(5));
		assertTrue("7 is prime", Prime.isPrime(7));
		assertTrue("41 is prime", Prime.isPrime(41));
		assertTrue("5099 is prime", Prime.isPrime(5099));
	}
	@Test
	public void testNotPrime() {
		assertFalse("4 is not prime", Prime.isPrime(4));
		assertFalse("6 is not prime", Prime.isPrime(6));
		assertFalse("8 is not prime", Prime.isPrime(8));
		assertFalse("9 is not prime", Prime.isPrime(9));
		assertFalse("45 is not prime", Prime.isPrime(45));
		assertFalse("-5 is not prime", Prime.isPrime(-5));
		assertFalse("-8 is not prime", Prime.isPrime(-8));
		assertFalse("-41 is not prime", Prime.isPrime(-41));
	}
}